An article written by Marie-Victoire Louis in Le Monde diplomatique in 1997, claimed that 80% of prostitutes in Amsterdam were foreigners and 70% had no immigration papers (but did not quote the source).
In 2008, Karina Schaapman, a former prostitute and former member of the Amsterdam city council, produced a report about the Amsterdam sex trade.
No more than one third were Dutch nationals, the remainder representing 44 nationalities.
The majority were from the Dominican Republic, Colombia, the Czech Republic and Poland.
Many cities tolerated prostitution to protect chaste female citizens from rape and defilement.